Open Access Original research

Idiopathic retinal vasculitis, arteriolar macroaneurysms and neuroretinitis: clinical course and treatment

Alexander Rouvas1*, Eleni Nikita2, Nikos Markomichelakis34, Panagiotis Theodossiadis1 and Nikolaos Pharmakakis5

Author Affiliations

1 2nd Ophthalmology Department, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, 12462, Greece

2 Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, M13 9WH, UK

3 Ocular Immunology and Inflammation Clinic, 1st Ophthalmology Department, G. Gennimatas University of Athens, Athens, 12462, Greece

4 University of Athens, Athens, 12462, Greece

5 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Patras Hospital, Patras, 26504, Greece

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Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection 2013, 3:21  doi:10.1186/1869-5760-3-21

Published: 25 January 2013

Abstract

Background

The purpose of the study is to describe the clinical course and treatment of idiopathic retinitis, vasculitis, aneurysms and neuroretinitis. The study utilized non-randomized, retrospective and interventional case series. The eight eyes of six patients were analysed. Testing included wide fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and systemic evaluation. Treatment involved observation, panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) for peripheral retinal ischemia, grid laser for macular oedema and focal laser on the macroaneurysms. The main outcome measures were initial visual acuity (VA), initial stage at diagnosis, clinical course, surgical intervention, final VA, final stage and complications of disease.

Results

Five out of eight eyes with retinal ischemia in more than two quadrants that were treated with PRP and grid laser for macular oedema maintained excellent VA and demonstrated no progression of retinal ischemia during follow-up. The two eyes which exhibited retinal ischemia in less than two quadrants and macular oedema were treated with grid laser and focal laser on the macroaneurysms, but did not undergo PRP. VA improved by two lines of the Snellen chart, and there was no progression of retinal ischemia during the 3 and 4 years of follow-up. One eye with neither retinal ischemia nor macular oedema was not treated, and the clinical picture remained stable during the follow-up.

Conclusion

Early PRP may be considered in the presence of angiographic evidence of peripheral retinal non-perfusion. However, treatment could be withheld until the patient develops retinal ischemia in more than two quadrants.

Keywords:
Inflammation; Retinal disease; Vasculitis